发国际护士信息上国际护士网 找国际护士信息上国际护士网

国际护士网 网站导航 手机版

国际护士头条

头条:

国际护士直通车淘宝店铺
主页 > 国际护理 > 儿童护理 > Healthy Teeth, Happy Kids!

Healthy Teeth, Happy Kids!

发表日期:2016-10-11 | 来源 :国际护士网 | 作者 :www.the-nurses.com |点击数: 次 收听:
 
应该从何时起为宝宝清洁口腔?
When should I first start caring for my baby’s teeth?
 
为您的宝宝保持良好的口腔卫生越早开始越好,可以在喂奶后用一小块湿纱布轻轻按摩擦拭宝宝的牙龈。宝宝出牙后,如果喂奶时间太接近入睡时间,容易使细菌积聚并嵌在牙齿上。孩子2岁起就可以用牙刷清洁牙齿了,但务必使用软毛牙刷。您可以在刷头上抹一点儿童含氟牙膏,或者不使用牙膏,然后轻轻刷洗清洁孩子的牙齿。
 
It’s never too early to start good dental hygiene for your baby. Gently clean your child’s gums with a damp piece of small gauze after feeding. Feeding too close to bedtime can allow bacteria to form and stick on the teeth. Under two years old, children can add a smear of children’s toothpaste, or do without using toothpaste, but if using a toothbrush be sure to use a soft bristled one with a small brush head to gently clean your child’s mouth.
 
2岁起至6岁,孩子就有能力在爸爸或妈妈的协助下自己刷牙了。首先让孩子自己刷一遍,挤豌豆大小的儿童含氟牙膏,可以用定时器设置两分钟计时。刷完后,家长再帮助孩子清洁一遍,防止有任何遗漏的斑点。儿童应每天早晚各刷一次牙,并在晚上使用牙线。在孩子的相邻两颗牙齿有接触时就应开始使用牙线了,家长可以选用牙线,或者更加方便操作的牙线棒。
 
From two to six years old, children are old enough to start brushing on their own with mom and dad’s help. Use a pea size amount of children’s toothpaste with fluoride. First have your child brush, (using a timer set for two minutes is a good way to train your child), then follow up by helping them clean again afterwards to catch any missed spots. Children should brush twice a day, flossing once at night. You can help your child to floss as soon as their teeth start to touch—I recommend using floss sticks to help children floss, although any floss is fine.
 
孩子何时开始洗牙?牙科检查时的X射线危害大吗?
When should my child have their first cleaning? And what about those x-rays?
 
美国儿童牙科学会指出,当宝宝的第一颗牙齿萌出时,就应当带他/她来看牙医并洗牙了,最迟不晚于他们的一周岁生日。此后建议每六个月检查一次。
 
The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry says by the child’s first tooth eruption, and no later than their first birthday, the child should be taken to see the dentist. After that, a checkup is recommended every six months.
 
儿童牙科医生接受过专业的儿童行为管理策略的训练,能够在检查和治疗过程中减轻孩子的压力。然而,家长的配合也至关重要。可以在孩子看牙医之前给他们看一些相关的图画书和故事书,让他们快乐就诊,而不是威胁或者吓唬孩子,比如试图用“再不听话医生就把你的牙齿拔出来”等话语来惩罚他们顽皮的行为。
 
Pediatric dentists are specially trained in behavior management techniques to lessen stress for children during checkups and procedures. However, parents can help their children prepare for the visit by reading books to them featuring happy visits to the dentist. Never threaten or scare your child by saying you or the dentist will pull out their tooth, trying to punish naughty behavior.
 
牙科X射线(俗称“牙片“)检查能够发现和确定龋齿的程度和范围,因此很多儿童患者在就诊时都需要拍牙片。X射线虽有辐射,但实际上剂量甚至小于太阳或我们周围的树木等天然来源的辐射量。
 
Dental x-rays are used to check for cavities—this means, yes, your child should have them. Although x-rays do emit some radiation, it’s actually normally less radiation than natural sources like the sun and the trees around us.
 
“奶瓶龋”是什么?孩子的乳牙健康重要吗?
What is “baby bottle mouth,” and how important are my child’s first set of teeth?
 
奶瓶龋主要是由于宝宝长时间吸吮奶瓶入睡而造成的龋齿。喂奶时宝宝很容易睡着,如果不清洁口腔很容易影响他们的牙齿和整体健康。
 
“Baby bottle mouth” or early childhood tooth decay happens when young children are able to feed on a bottle or with mom for prolonged periods of time, often while falling asleep or right before bed. It’s so easy to let our children fall asleep while feeding, but it can actually be dangerous to their dental and overall health.
 
尽管孩子乳牙的重要性似乎不比伴随一生的恒牙,毕竟乳牙迟早会脱落。但事实上,乳牙的萌发和生长直接影响日后恒牙的发展。如果乳牙出现龋面后不及时治疗,不仅会形成蛀牙,还将导致口腔和面部感染和肿胀。很多家长都认为孩子迟早要换牙而不去理会已经形成的蛀牙,这样不仅会让孩子牙齿疼痛难忍,影响生活;严重的乳牙龋齿会过早脱落,可导致孩子营养不良、出现语言障碍并影响孩子的自尊和自信。更严重的情况下,危险的细菌感染还可能对大脑发育造成影响,甚至导致死亡。
 
Even though it may not seem like a child’s first set of teeth is all that important—after all, they fall out, right?—improper care of a child’s first set can affect the eruption and development of their permanent adult set of teeth. If untreated, this decay can not only cause cavities, but lead to infection and swelling of the mouth and face, which can cause pain. Early loss of baby teeth due to untreated cavities can lead to malnutrition, speech problems and effects the child’s confidence and self-esteem. In very severe cases, the dangerous bacteria can travel to the child’s brain and cause death.
 
宝宝爱吸吮大拇指和安抚奶嘴,会影响牙齿健康吗?
What affect does thumb sucking and pacifiers have?
 
过度吸吮手指和奶嘴会干扰上下颌的正常生长,影响外表的美观。确保孩子在4岁前戒掉吸吮手指的习惯,对牙弓、牙齿排列和咬合的影响还是可逆的。
 
Excessive thumb sucking and pacifier use can change the arc of your child’s mouth, if used too long. If you have your kids stop by age four, changes to the dental arch, tooth position and jaw alignment can be reversible.
 
饮食习惯对牙齿健康有影响吗?
How does diet affect a healthy smile?
 
几乎所有的食物和饮料都含有可发酵碳水化合物(糖和淀粉),因此除了糖果,大米、面条和面包也有可能导致蛀牙。蛀牙是由口腔细菌与食物和饮料中的可发酵碳水化合物接触、产生酸而引起的。这些微生物群构成一种黏黏的、无色的软膜粘附在牙齿表面,叫做牙菌斑。即使口腔里没有食物,牙菌斑也会在牙齿上附着。
 
All food and beverages contain fermentable carbohydrates (sugars and starches), including rice, noodles and breads, all with  the potential to cause tooth decay. Tooth decay is caused by the interaction of bacteria that are naturally present in the mouth with these carbohydrates. These tiny organisms form a sticky, colorless, soft film on the teeth called ‘plaque.’ During the day, plaque builds up naturally on clean teeth, even when there is no food in the mouth.
 
当我们食用含有可发酵碳水化合物的食物后,细菌分解糖产生酸。如果不及时清除,一段时间后会腐蚀牙齿外层的牙釉质,这一过程称为“脱矿”。健康的牙釉质表面有釉质的自我修复功能,当高频率地进食含糖和淀粉量高的食物时,牙齿没有足够的时间“再矿化”(通过钙离子在牙齿表面的流失与补充,实现釉质的自我修复功能,以降低蛀牙程度),一定时间内“脱矿”的速度大于“再矿化”时,就有可能导致蛀牙。因此,如果不及时清除附着在牙齿表面的含可发酵碳水化合物食物残渣,或经常食用含可发酵碳水化合物的食品和饮料都会危害牙齿健康。
 
When we consume foods that contain fermentable carbohydrates (sugars and starches), the bacteria break down the carbohydrates to create acid. Over time, the acid dissolves the minerals in the hard outer layer of the tooth. This is called ‘de mineralization’ and can lead to tooth decay. Eating a high-frequency diet with sugar and starches, your teeth don’t have time to re-mineralize, (a natural process by which our saliva to return minerals to teeth to reduce the extent of tooth decay). Tooth decay is likely to occur when there is more de-mineralization than re-mineralization over a period of time. This may happen in the presence of carbohydrates when teeth are not cleaned. It can also happen when foods and drinks containing carbohydrates are consumed frequently, without allowing enough time in between  meals for re-mineralization to occur.
 
理想情况下,我们应该在每顿饭后刷牙、清除牙菌斑,但有时并不容易实现。可以鼓励孩子在饭后或喝奶后饮用白开水,帮助清洁乳牙。此外,给孩子饮用稀释的果汁也能降低饮食中的含糖量。年龄大一些的孩子可以通过嚼无糖口香糖来帮助清除细菌和牙齿“再矿化”。芝士也是牙齿的天然保护者,吃含有芝士/奶酪的食物能增加牙齿表层的含钙量,从而帮助抑制龋齿发生。
 
Ideally, we would brush after every meal, but that’s not always an option. Encouraging kids to drink water after meals and feeding can help wash away lingering bacteria. Also, watering down juice is a good way to decrease the amount of sugars in your child’s diet. For older kids, chewing a sugar-free gum can help clear away bacteria and re-mineralize the teeth. Cheese is also a good natural tooth protector—it helps fight cavities and re-mineralize teeth.
 
如何进行涂氟治疗?
What about fluoride?
 
涂氟治疗是一种常规的儿童牙齿保健方法,您可以带宝宝来和睦家广州诊所口腔科进行涂氟治疗,或者使用儿童含氟牙膏保护牙齿。
 
Many western cities have fluoride in the drinking water, so many parents ask about what they can better do to protect their children’s teeth. They can certainly come in to United Family Guangzhou Clinc for a fluoride treatment. Although, if children are regularly using a children’s fluoride-enhanced toothpaste, they should be fine.

国际护士网(www.the-nurses.com)

国际护士网微信公众号
数据统计中,请稍等!
标签:
国际护士网专题
国际护士风采

合作机构

友情链接

关于本站| 对外合作| 有偿投稿| 转载声明| 免责声明| 联系我们| 【网站地图】| 【百度地图】| 【谷歌地图】| 【Feed地图】

Copyrights © 2015 www.the-nurses.com, All rights reserved. 豫ICP备12001925号-2

河南网络警察报警平台公共信息安全网络监察经营性网站备案信息不良信息举报中心中国文明网传播文明诚信网站
  • 合作咨询
  • 官方微博
    国际护士网官方微博
  • 官方微信
    国际护士网微信公众号